逆转裁判 是由Capcom开发和出版的一系列以法庭辩论为题材的AVG（文字冒险游戏）。 该系列源于巧舟创作的名为逆转裁判 （Ace Attorney）的集紧张气氛、喜剧元素和法庭辩论为一体的游戏三部曲。并于2001年至2004年间在日本的任天堂Game Boy Advance掌上游戏机上发行。这三部曲随后又被移植到Nintendo DS并在国际上发行。在这些游戏中，玩家将扮演一位名叫成步堂龙一的新人辩护律师，利用调查、询问和证据在与日本法庭体系相类似的虚拟法庭中为自己的委托人奋战。
随后发布的游戏开始逐渐改变原生三部曲的玩法并与其分离，并且出现了不同的主角。其中有两部名为逆转检事（Turnabout Prosecutor）的侦探推理游戏让玩家有幸扮演成步堂律师的对手——一名以搜查、逻辑和雄辩为武器打击犯罪的天才检察官御剑怜侍；亦有一部作品描写日本明治维新时代（也是英国维多利亚时代）的逆转裁判系列游戏——大逆转裁判：成步堂龙之介的冒险（Great Turnabout Trial: The Adventures of Ryūnosuke Naruhodō）在2015年于日本发售。该部作品以成步堂龙之介（正作中成步堂龙一的先祖）和侦探小说中的传奇人物——夏洛克·福尔摩斯为主角。
逆转系列的灵感来源于2000年。当时三上真司给了巧舟六个月来开发一款游戏。巧舟想做一款能够从他人陈述中发现谎言的解谜游戏。他最初想设计一款私家侦探题材的游戏。其中的第一章便是主角在自己的办公室发现了尸体，而自己被当做嫌疑人* (这与逆转裁判1-1的剧情类似，可以看做是逆转裁判1-1的雏形)。The original conceit of the story for the first game was that the protagonist would become the suspect in a murder when a body was discovered in his office. After being assigned a useless lawyer, he would go on to defend himself against the charges. Takumi dropped the detective theme, due to his concept having little to do with actual detective work, and realized that a courtroom setting with an attorney as a protagonist would be a better fit for his idea.
Takumi was inspired by many western mystery fiction, most notably Perry Mason, an American work about a fictional defense attorney who operates in much the same fashion as Phoenix Wright. This inspiration would later go on to inspire the naming of the "MASON System" in Gyakuten Saiban 4. Another western inspiration was Columbo. The show's unique structure of showing viewers the murderer at the start, in order to focus on how the detective overcomes the culprit's tricks, rather then who the culprit is, inspired the Ace Attorney tradition of revealing the culprit of the game's first episode. Takumi has also cited A Aiichirou as an inspiration, and has mentioned Soutou no Akuma as an influence in the episode Bridge to the Turnabout.
关于法律设定, Takumi was inspired by the state of the Japanese legal system as it was in the year 2000, and made the narrative conceit of Gyakuten Saiban a legal satire. At the time in Japan, the defense lawyer occupation was one of the most notoriously difficult occupations in the country, with most attorneys not winning a single case their entire career, and the then-current bench system had a conviction rate of 99%. For this reason, Takumi wanted players to control an "underdog" defense lawyer, who would battle against the odds to prove his clients innocent. Takumi and his team took several trips to observe criminal trials at a courthouse, as research, as well as for team-building. Takumi recalls that while observing the first trial, involving indecent exposure charges, he was particularly struck with how "homely" the atmosphere was. After observing more trials, including a murder trial, he noted the reality of the civil, calm nature of trials, particularly recalling a moment in which the defense and prosecuting attorneys very civilly dealt with a complaint the former had regarding the latter's cross-examination. In the end, he decided to ignore this reality, in favor of creating trials that relied heavily on exciting courtroom drama.
The first Gyakuten Saiban (later localized as Phoenix Wright: Ace Attorney) was conceived and created by a small team led by Shu Takumi. At the time, Takumi did not know whether the game would be released outside of Japan, so he avoided using plot points and language tricks that would be specific to Japanese culture. After finishing the first game, he asked Mikami whether it would be released outside of Japan, to which the latter replied, "Of course not. No way." Thus, Takumi decided to use whatever plot points and tricks he wanted for the next two sequels (later localized at Phoenix Wright: Ace Attorney: Justice For All and Phoenix Wright: Ace Attorney: Trials and Tribulations).
The first Gyakuten Saiban was then remade for the Nintendo DS as Gyakuten Saiban: Yomigaeru Gyakuten (meaning "Turnabout Trial: Turnabout Rebirth") in 2005, which included an English-language mode, making it a popular import title. Later that year, a North American version of the remake was released as Phoenix Wright: Ace Attorney, followed by a European version. The remake also featured an extra case, Rise from the Ashes, which used the microphone and touchscreen features of the Nintendo DS for using forensic tools. Similar remakes for the next two games followed, named Phoenix Wright: Ace Attorney: Justice For All and Phoenix Wright: Ace Attorney: Trials and Tribulations in localizations, though these did not feature extra cases.
系列中的第四部正作, 逆转裁判4, was built for the Nintendo DS from the ground up, and starred a new lawyer, Apollo Justice. Mechanics from Rise from the Ashes made a return in various capacities in this game and in subsequent games. The practice of including an English mode was discontinued, the English localization only appearing in international releases. Because the games were now being localized, Takumi returned to avoiding the use of Japanese-specific plot points in this game, though he felt that the yakuza-themed Kitaki clan would make sense to international audiences.
Capcom then partnered with Daletto (a company co-founded by Capcom to work with online games) to release the first three games as episodic content only in Japan between March and May 2008. After Apollo Justice, Takeshi Yamazaki took over the director's position from Takumi and produced a game starring Phoenix's rival Miles Edgeworth, Gyakuten Kenji. This was localized internationally as Ace Attorney Investigations: Miles Edgeworth, though only the English language became available. iOS and WiiWare remakes of the original three games soon followed, though in case of the iOS, only the first game made it to North America.
游戏情节大部分以审判推进。逆转裁判法庭进行的审判全部都是序审体系下的初审。逆转世界观下的低等级案件都是以源于日本法系的序审体系进行审判的。 简单来说，在序审体系下，当一个人因犯罪嫌疑被捕起诉，他（或者她，它）会立即被序审法庭审判。参与审判的有一名裁判长，一名（或两名）政府派出的检察官和一名（或多名）以证明被告完全无罪为目标* (但假如真相不是被告无罪，律师应该追求真相而非一昧地辩护)的辩护律师。审判为对抗式审判，其基本环节是听取证人证言（询问）并在证言中找到并推翻矛盾。审判的目的是在三天内确定被告是否有罪，有罪者将在一个月内移交更高级别的法庭进行量刑，无罪者当庭释放。此外，逆转裁判4中出现了陪审团系统，它的出现原因是逆转裁判世界观上的一次大变动（法律的黑暗时代）。
法庭部分的主要环节是证人证词的陈述和询问。 玩家在询问证人时通过提出与证言矛盾的证据来打破伪证。玩家也可以“威慑（追问）”证人证言中模糊不清的部分，也可以使用威慑对证人施加压力。有时威慑或提交证据会出现追加证言。 提出正确物、在正确时机威慑，是游戏获胜的核心且唯一途径。逆转裁判4还加入了“看穿”系统，可以在某些询问时使用。玩家可以通过手镯仔细观察证人在撒谎时的小动作（比如不经意的玩弄手指或者吞咽动作），从而迫使证人说出真相。
提出证据时，辩护律师会凌空一指（这个动作也被做成了游戏系列的logo），喊出“异议！”（異議あり!, Igi ari!）， 同时屏幕上浮现写有异议的对话气泡（这也成为了逆转系列的象征，甚至被应用到逆转以外的地方，成为了一个经典梗）。如果玩家指证了错误的证据（或者在错误的时机指证了它），或是在法庭部分有其他错误行为，法官对律师的信任度就会降低，如果玩家错误次数过多，法官会立刻终止审判并下达有罪判决，玩家也只能从自己最近的存档位置重新开始游戏。
The localization of the games adapts the story to take place in an alternate-universe Los Angeles in which Japanese culture has been allowed to flourish and blend into American culture, instead of being met with fierce historical resistance as in real life. Character names are adapted into English; for instance, "Ryuuichi Naruhodou", whose first name references a dragon and whose last name is a pun on the phrase "I see", is renamed "Phoenix Wright", whose first name references the phoenix and whose last name is a pun on the word "right". Additionally, relatively nonessential references to Japanese culture are replaced by references to Western culture; for example, "Mayoi Ayasato" frequently hungers for ramen, while the English equivalent "Maya Fey" lusts for burgers. However, the existence of Japanese temples and Japanese-themed towns is left intact. Budget and time constraints have caused this system to be implemented somewhat inconsistently, such as Eldoon's Noodles staying intact.
References to the United States in the Japanese versions are changed to various European countries (usually Germany) to account for characters who are meant to have visited a foreign country. In Reunion, and Turnabout, an American car is called a British car in the localization because cars in the United Kingdom and Japan drive on the left side of the road, whereas North American cars drive on the right.
|逆转裁判1||81/100 (53评测)||82.42% (64评测)|
|逆转裁判2||76/100 (51评测)||77.59% (55评测)|
|逆转裁判3||81/100 (46评测)||81.14% (49评测)|
|逆转裁判4||77/100 (48评测)||78.39% (46评测)|
|逆转检事||77/100 (51评测)||78.81% (35评测)|
|逆转裁判5||81/100 (48评测)||81.64% (33评测)|
|逆转裁判6||81/100 (58评测)||81.54% (37评测)|
西方游戏媒体大部分都为逆转裁判给出了正面评价The games have received praise for their presentation, music and dialog, and for being strong adventure game titles in an otherwise lacking market. Criticisms have included linearity, lack of replay value, and lack of evolution in the general gameplay formula. Reviewers have also noted the unrealistic nature of the courtroom system; GameSpot noted in its review of Phoenix Wright: Ace Attorney that, during courtroom sessions, one should "suspend your disbelief about the whole procedure, since, although it feels fairly close to reality, many things go on during the proceedings that would probably horrify actual members of the legal system." Issue 22 of (N)Gamer also noted that the games sometimes involve "odd leaps in logic" that can degenerate the experience of presenting evidence into a trial-and-error procedure. Justice For All and Trials and Tribulations were criticized for a lack of the unique DS features introduced in the first game.
In Japan, the games have enjoyed a reasonable amount of popularity. The combined sales (both GBA and DS) of the first two games totaled around 400,000 units, while the GBA version of the third game, neared 250,000 units. The fourth game sold 160,000 copies on the day of release in Japan, with a total of 250,000 units moved during the first week of release. Ace Attorney Investigations: Miles Edgeworth sold 172,000 units in the week of its release and 42,000 the following week. In both cases, the game was the second best selling DS title in Japan, trailing Kingdom Hearts 358/2 Days.
In the United States, the success of the first game exceeded the low expectations of retailers such as Wal-Mart and Toys "R" Us, forcing Capcom to prepare at least three additional runs of the game to meet the demand. Capcom had produced nine to ten runs of three-to-four thousand units before Toys "R" Us requested 15,000 copies.
As of December 2009, Capcom has stated that the series has sold more than 3.8 million units worldwide, and is currently their 9th best selling series of all time.
The official Ace Attorney original soundtrack albums are almost all released on the Suleputer label that Capcom typically uses, with the exception of the Gyakuten Saiban Movie Original Soundtrack which is on the VAP label. The composers responsible for the music are Masakazu Sugimori, Akemi Kimura, Noriyuki Iwadare, Toshihiko Horiyama, Yasuko Yamada, Tomohito Nishiura, Yasumasa Kitagawa, Kōji Endō, and Masami Onodera.
- Gyakuten Saiban 1 and 2 Original Soundtrack (2004)
- Gyakuten Saiban 3 Original Soundtrack (2004)
- Gyakuten Saiban: Yomigaeru Gyakuten Original Soundtrack (2005)
- Gyakuten Saiban 4 Original Soundtrack (2007)
- Gyakuten Kenji Original Soundtrack (2009)
- Gyakuten Kenji 2 Original Soundtrack (2011)
- Gyakuten Saiban Sound BOX (2012)
- "Professor Layton VS Gyakuten Saiban" Original Soundtrack with Special Anime Film (2012)
- Professor Layton VS Gyakuten Saiban Magical Mystery Music (2013)
- Gyakuten Saiban 5 Original Soundtrack (2013)
- Gyakuten Saiban 6 Original Soundtrack (2016)
- Gyakuten Meets Orchestra (2006)
- Gyakuten Meets Jazz Soul (2007)
- Gyakuten Saiban Tokubetsu Hōtei 2008 (2008)
- Gyakuten Kenji Orchestra Mini Album (2009)
- Gyakuten Kenji 2 Orchestra Arrangement Collection (2011)
- Gyakuten Saiban Movie Original Soundtrack (2012)
- Main category: Musicals
There have been two drama CDs released by Capcom. These CDs contain original cases, presented by voice actors in a radio-drama style:
- Drama CD: Gyakuten Kenji 2: ~Turnabout from Space!?~
- Drama CD: Gyakuten Saiban 5: ~Animal Circus Turnabout!?~
U.S manga publisher Del Rey Manga is distributing in the United States a manga adaptation of the video game series that is currently being serialized in Japan. The adaptation is written by Kenji Kuroda, illustrated by Kazuo Maekawa and published by Kodansha. Del Rey Manga has also distributed a manga anthology based on the Phoenix Wright trilogy, which was an older collection of dōjinshi (fan comics) created by several different manga artists. The first volume was called The Phoenix Wright Files while the second was called The Miles Edgeworth files.
- ↑ Hsu, Janet (2014-09-11). "The Early Days of Ace Attorney". Capcom. Archived from the original on 2015-02-08. Retrieved 05/15/18
- ↑ 2.0 2.1 Ash. Takumi on Columbo (Kono Manga ga Sugoi interview). Court Records Forums. Retrieved 2015-08-29.
- ↑ Shu Takumi Official Nintendo Magazine Interview - Court-Records. Date Retrieved. 05/15/18
- ↑ Phoenix Wright: Ace Attorney Trilogy Localization Blog - Observing Trials - Capcom Unity Janet, Hsu Blog (08/28/14)- Retrieved. 05/15/18
- ↑ 5.0 5.1 Hsu, Janet (2017-11-18). The Making of Apollo Justice: Ace Attorney, Feat. Shu Takumi. Capcom Unity. Retrieved on 2018-06-04.
- ↑ Giuseppe Nelva (2013-12-27). Capcom Developers Tease New Games to Be Announced Next Year, New Ace Attorney in the Works. DualSHOCKERS. Retrieved on 2014-03-23.
- ↑ Brian Ashcraft (2014-02-13). Capcom Is Making a New Ace Attorney. Kotaku. Retrieved on 2014-03-23.
- ↑ Hsu, Janet (2014-10-31). Ace Attorney Trilogy - Surprising Tidbits You Never Knew! Capcom Unity. Retrieved on 2014-11-02.